DEMENTIA 101 – DISEASES CAUSING DEMENTIA

Dementia is not a disease, but rather a combination of symptoms that may accompany a disease or physical condition.  These changes or symptoms, begin with memory loss, and slowly progress to the person having difficulty caring for themselves and eventually becoming totally dependent on others. The symptoms must include memory loss and at least one of the following to indicate dementia.

  • Loss of language skills, understanding words, spoken or written as well as the ability to speak coherently.
  • The loss of the ability to recognize objects and eventually people.
  • The loss of the ability to initiate and follow through with motor skills.
  • The loss of reason, judgement, planning and ability to follow through with a plan.

These changes have to be severe enough to interfere with the person’s ability to live independently, to be considered dementia. When the elder suffers only from occasional memory problems, that are not interfering with daily activities, they are considered to have mild cognitive impairment.

Alzheimer’s Disease: is the most common cause of dementia affecting between 50% – 70% of those diagnosed with dementia. By the time a person is 85 years old they will have about a 50% chance of developing Alzheimer’s Disease.

Vascular Dementia: The second leading cause of dementia is experiencing a stroke. This is not a slowly progressing dementia, it progresses as the elder continues to have small strokes causing more damage to the brain.

Lewy Body Dementia:  Named for the round structures, or Lewy bodies found in the brain. This is frequently connected to the person who has, Parkinson’s disease with dementia.

Frontotemporal Dementia: This dementia doesn’t present with memory loss until much later in the disease process. The first signs are personality changes, and lack of empathy for others.

Virginia Garberding RN

Certified in Gerontology and Restorative Nursing